Internet and Ebooks for references please.


Please write a synthesis of 3 classmates.


Alexander’s Post:

 Pesticides have known to be harmful to the ecological system, produce, and ourselves as humans. The video has shown that bees that were exposed to low levels of only 2 different pesticides had a negative reaction in the study. Long term effects have shown that bees could either die, or their colony can fail amongst other effects (Stoddart, 2012). Bees are an important part and play a major role in our ecosystem. Without bees, we can see a decrease in plant life due to the decrease in pollination that the bees provide. With a decrease in plants that means less food for wildlife, less food for wildlife means less food for us. This is the reason why the health of bees are so vital to us as humans.

       There are alternatives to pesticides that have shown to be safe for bees. According to beyond pesticides, Safe alternatives to neonicotinoids are baits, traps and safer oils placed around the area of interest to repel the target insect population without affecting the bees (beyondpesticides, 2014). By using these alternative methods to pesticides we would be less likely to interrupt the bees ecosystem and enable them to care for their hive and continue pollinating flowers in these regions that can prove detrimental to the respected wildlife as well as our sources of meat as well.   


Amna’s Post:

  1. Based on the videos, describe the impact of pesticide resistance on the environment and subsequently human health.

Even prior to watching the video, I was aware that pesticides can insinuate a negative effect on both the environment and our health. This video helped to further educate me on their specific negative elements. For instance; in our environment it can contribute to adverse consequences on bees’ abilities to colonize, or Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD). Such that, not only are bees killed from sprayed regions on or around plants but – it also affects overall process of bees’ search for salvageable wild resources (Nature Video, 2012). Bees’ pollination with flowers represents a mutualistic relationship therefore, in its absence; this can be detrimental to both of the species and their associating species. Moreover, it is unequivocally harmful to humans’ acute and chronic health as well. Pesticides are essentially hazardous chemicals (Nature Video, 2012) and can range on severity based on the individual including cancers, birth defects, reproductive harm, neurological and developmental toxicity, immunotoxicity, and disruption of the endocrine system (Californians for Pesticide Reform, n.d.). 

2. Are there alternative strategies to pesticide use for controlling pests/vectors of disease?

Due to the abundance of research suggesting the adverse effects of pesticides, there are alternatives that can also safely maintain similar functions. One reformed method is the implementation of either natural plant traps, like Venus fly traps, or mechanical traps (Californians for Pesticide Reform, n.d.). 


Kendra’s Post:

Bees contribute approximately 80% of insect pollination, so it is important to understand and mitigate the causes of current declines in bee populations. Recent studies have implicated the role of pesticides in these declines, as exposure to these chemicals has been associated with changes in bee behaviour and reductions in colony queen production. However, the key link between changes in individual behaviour and the consequent impact at the colony level has not been shown. Social bee colonies depend on the collective performance of many individual workers. Thus, although field-level pesticide concentrations can have subtle or sublethal effects at the individual level, it is not known whether bee societies can buffer such effects or whether it results in a severe cumulative effect at the colony level. Insecticide exposure during brood or early-adult development reduces brain growth and impairs adult learning in bumblebees. (Smith, D. B. et al. 2020) For social bees, an understudied step in evaluating pesticide risk is how contaminated food entering colonies affects residing offspring development and maturation. For instance, neurotoxic insecticide compounds in food could affect central nervous system development predisposing individuals to become poorer task performers later-in-life. Studying bumblebee colonies provisioned with neonicotinoid spiked nectar substitute, we measured brain volume and learning behaviour of 3 or 12-day old adults that had experienced in-hive exposure during brood and/or early-stage adult development. Micro-computed tomography scanning and segmentation of multiple brain neuropils showed exposure during either of the developmental stages caused reduced mushroom body calycal growth relative to unexposed workers. Associated with this was a lower probability of responding to a sucrose reward and lower learning performance in an olfactory conditioning test. While calycal volume of control workers positively correlated with learning score, this relationship was absent for exposed workers indicating neuropil functional impairment. Comparison of 3- and 12-day adults exposed during brood development showed a similar degree of reduced calycal volume and impaired behaviour highlighting lasting and irrecoverable effects from exposure despite no adult exposure. Our findings help explain how the onset of pesticide exposure to whole colonies can lead to lag-effects on growth and resultant dysfunction.


See Example below:

The concept of gatekeeping in healthcare is controversial. Sheena, Timothy, and Brooke attest to the fact that there are as many advantages to gatekeeping as there are limitations. The rationale behind the concept is that by controlling access to specialist services, the government can control healthcare costs. Sheena confirms that the informed gatekeeper, the primary care physician, determines patients whose conditions are beyond their scope, and therefore need specialist services. Ideally, this arrangement makes sense. Using the services of primary care physicians is less expensive than using specialist services at every instance (Wammes et al., 2014). However, in practice the situation has been less than straightforward. Brookes argues that primary care physicians are overworked because all patients have to consult the before being referred to specialists. Since the ratification of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), access to care has increased, thus significantly increasing the workload of primary care of physicians (Wishner & Burton, 2017). Timothy maintains that the use of gatekeepers is also a hindrance for individuals who require specialist attention on the go such as elderly patients. Visiting primary care physicians wastes time, thus increasing the likelihood of adverse outcomes. Lastly, the gatekeeping system is not popular among patients. It minimizes the autonomy of patients since they cannot choose when to seek specialist care (Greenfield & Majeed, 2016). For the gatekeeping system to succeed, authorities should look to minimize the impact of the limitations discussed. Increasing flexibility on groups of patients who can be exempted from seeking referral letters from primary care physicians would prevent unnecessary visits. Better communication between gatekeepers and specialists would also expedite the process.

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